The Management of Cultural Tourism in the Southern African Development Community Region: Learning from Best Performers

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31866/2709-846x.1.2022.257684

Keywords:

Southern African Development Community, culture, strategies, tourism

Abstract

Introduction. Tourists are in search of authentic experiences such as unique arts and culture in tourist destinations. Policymakers are now focusing on cultural tourism because of its perceived links to economic advantages inclusive of employment, business opportunities, and income generation. Purpose and methods. Using the examples of Tanzania, Botswana, Namibia, Mauritius, and Seychelles, this study critically analyses the measures employed by these five countries to manage cultural tourism to improve their global tourism competitiveness. A comprehensive literature review approach is adopted as a research method to build a sufficient and accurate pool of data to attain reliable findings. Results. The study identified strategies utilized in the selected countries that can be adopted by other regional countries for cultural tourism development. These strategies include establishing cultural exchange programmes, preserving local cultural practices, sensitizing the local community on the importance of cultural tourism, local and international cultural tourism development collaborations, and cultural policy development among others. Conclusions. This study builds a body of knowledge by identifying some cultural tourism management strategies in the Southern African Development Community region. It extends new knowledge by comparing the differences and similarities in adopted strategies in the selected countries to learn about the most common cultural tourism management strategies and unique strategies adopted. Moreover, it provides recommendations that other developing countries in Africa can adopt to improve their cultural tourism management. The study provides directions for future cultural tourism research in the Southern African Development Community region. 

Author Biography

Boitumelo Rasethuntsa, Lerotholi Polytechnic, Maseru, Lesotho

Senior Lecturer, PhD

References

Adeboye, C. A. (2012). The Impact of Entertainment on Tourism. Case Study: Agency Remarc in Greece. Kokkola: Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences [Unpublished Degree Thesis].

Britannica (2021). Government and Society, Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Seychelles/Government-and-society.

Bolaane, M. M., & Kanduza, A. M. (2008). Critical Factors in Cultural Tourism in Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records, 39, 54-61, doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/41236633.

Csapo, J. (2012). The Role and Importance of Cultural Tourism in Modern Tourism Industry. Strategies for Tourism Industry: Micro and Macro Perspectives (M. Kasimoglu & H. Aydin, Eds.). Rijeka: InTech, 201-232, doi: https://doi.org/10.5772/38693.

Ezenagu, N. (2020). Heritage Resources as a Driver for Cultural Tourism in Nigeria. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 7(1), 1-14, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311983.2020.1734331.

Flento, A. (2012). The Culture Programme of the Danish Embassy in Tanzania 2008-12. Dar Salaam: Denmark in Tanzania.

Idang, G. E. (2015). African Culture and Values. Phronimon, 16(2), 97-111, doi: https://doi.org/10.25159/2413-3086/3820.

Jaswal, S. S. (2014). Role of Tourism Industry in India’s Development. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 3(2),1-6, doi: https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0269.1000126.

Johnston, M. P. (2014). Secondary Data Analysis: A Method of Which the Time has Come. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries, 3(3), 619-626.

Jones, R. (2009). Cultural Tourism in Botswana and the Sexaxa Cultural Village: A Case Study. Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection, Retrieved from https://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1729&context=isp_collection.

Maconick, R. (2010). Sustainable Tourism in Namibia. New York: MDG Achievement Fund.

Manwa, H., Moswete, N., & Saarinen, J. (Eds.). (2016). Cultural Tourism in Southern Africa, doi: https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845415532.

Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (2011). Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Namibia. New York: MDG Achievement Fund.

Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (2013). Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Namibia. New York: MDG Achievement Fund.

Ministry of Arts and Culture (2018). Cultural Exchanges, Retrieved from http://culture.govmu.org/English/CULTURALEXCHANGE/Pages/default.aspx.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Tourism (2021, August 28). Minister’s Message, Retrieved from https://tourism.gov.sc/.

Mishra, S. B., & Alok, S. (2017). Handbook of Research Methodology. Educreation Publishing: New Delhi.

National Planning Commission of Namibia (2008). Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Namibia. Windhoek: National Planning Commission of Namibia.

Nkwanyana, M. S., Ezeuduji, I. O., & Nzama, A. T. (2016). Cultural Heritage Tourism in South Africa: Perceived a Panacea for Rural Development? Acta Universitatis Danubius. Economica, 12(6), 160-167.

Okharedia, A. A. (2020). The Concept of Cultural Tourism and its Significance in Developing Economies. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 9(2), 1-8.

Ololo, N. G., & Otegbulu, G. C. (2020). The Philosophy of Developing Cultural Tourism in Nigeria: A Sustainable Development Perspective. Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(2), 1-9, doi: https://doi.org/10.36099/ajahss.2.2.1.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009). The Impact of Culture on Tourism. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Publishing.

Richards, G. (2011). Tourism Development Trajectories: From Culture to Creativity? Tourism & Management Studies, 6, 9-15.

Saarinen, J. (2016). Cultural Tourism and the Role of Crafts in Southern Africa: The Case of Craft Markets in Windhoek, Namibia. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 64(4), 409-418.

Saarinen, J., Moswete, N., & Monare, M. J. (2014). Cultural Tourism: New Opportunities for Diversifying the Tourism Industry in Botswana. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-Economic Series, 26, 7-18, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/bog-2014-0041.

Saarinen, J., & Rogerson, C. M. (2015). Setting Cultural Tourism in Southern Africa. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 24(3&4), 207-220.

Seaman, B. A. (2013). The Role of Private Sector in Cultural Heritage. Handbook on the Economics of Cultural Heritage (I. Rizzo & A. Mignosa, Eds.). (Ch. 5). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 111-128.

Snyder, H. (2019). Literature Review as a Research Methodology: An Overview and Guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 104, 333-339, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039.

Southern African Development Community (2015). Statistical Yearbook. Gaborone: Southern African Development Community.

Southern African Development Community (2019). SADC Tourism Programme 2020/2030. Gaborone: SADC.

Tanzania Cultural Tourism Programmes (2018). Background of Cultural Tourism in Tanzania, Retrieved from http://www.tanzaniaculturaltourism.com/history.htm.

Tanzania Tourist Board (2018). Cultural tourism, Retrieved from https://www.tanzaniatourism.go.tz/things-todo/category/cultural-tourism.

Tasie, G. I. K. (2014). Promoting Cultural Tourism Industry in Africa: The Place of African Indigenous Religion. African Research Review, 8(4), 96-110, doi: https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v8i4.8.

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (2018). Policy Seychelles Promotes its Vibrant Creole Culture in New National culture. Paris: UNESCO.

Vodeb, K., & Nemec Rudež, H. (2016). Possibilities for Inter-Destination Collaboration in Tourism in the Case of Opatija and Portorož: A Managerial Perspective. Revija za Sociologiju, 46(2), 205-227, doi: https://doi.org/10.5613/rzs.46.2.4.

Walliman, N. (2011). Research Methods: The Basics. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, doi: https://doi.org/ 10.4324/9780203836071.

World Bank (2021). Gross Domestic Product 2020. Washington DC: The World Bank.

World Economic Forum (2007). Travel and Tourism Competitive Index Report. Cologny: World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum (2015). Travel and Tourism Competitive Index Report. Cologny: World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum (2017). Travel and Tourism Competitive Index Report. Cologny: World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum (2019). Travel and Tourism Competitive Index Report. Cologny: World Economic Forum.

World Tourism Organization (2015). Affiliate Members Regional Reports, Volume four – Tourism in Africa: A Tool for Development. Madrid: UNWTO.

Downloads

Published

2022-05-28

How to Cite

Rasethuntsa, B. . (2022). The Management of Cultural Tourism in the Southern African Development Community Region: Learning from Best Performers. Socio-Cultural Management Journal, 5(1), 92–104. https://doi.org/10.31866/2709-846x.1.2022.257684

Issue

Section

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT